Background The King-Devick (KD) test is an objective clinical test of eye movements that has been used to screen for concussion. , King-Devick Test. Patent-Pending. All Rights Reserved. Mayo and Mayo Clinic are registered trademarks owned by Mayo Foundation for. King-Devick Test identifies real-time concussion and asymptomatic concussion in youth athletes. Priya S. Dhawan, Danielle Leong, Lisa Tapsell, Amaal J.

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To perform the K-D test, participants are asked to read the numbers on each card from left to right as quickly as possible but without making any errors. Results twst our study show that K-D test time scores have a high degree of test-retest reliability, with ICCs of 0. GalettaMD, and L. Branas report no disclosures.

Thus, while structural neuroimaging techniques are insensitive to the effects of concussion, more advanced fMRI techniques have tes able to document damage and to examine the window of metabolic brain vulnerability during which a second concussion could be even more dangerous. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Clin Sports Med ; Test-retest reliability was estimated for 2 prefight K-D test measurements by the intraclass correlation coefficient ICC ; ICCs were also used to examine agreement between prefight and postfight scores among participants without head trauma. N Engl J Med ; This test consists of 3 components, including a cognitive history, memory and orientation testing, and a neurologic screening.

Data from this investigation demonstrate that the Tet test is an accurate and reliable method for identifying athletes with head trauma.

The King-Devick test as a determinant of head trauma and concussion in boxers and MMA fighters

GalettaMS, J. Impaired eye movement function, particularly for those reflecting subcortical pathways, correlated well with severity of postconcussive symptoms and with limitation of activities of daily living. Testing procedures for boxers.


kking-devick Standardized instructions are used, and the test requires less than 2 minutes to administer. Because the K-D test captures many aspects of function, including subcortical subconscious pathways that extend beyond eye movements, this test may help coaches and trainers with game decisions regarding removal of a player who may have been concussed.

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Since detecting early signs of concussion can improve outcomes, 8 — 20 there is a need for a rapid screening test to assess athletes who may have had a concussion. This observation likely reflects learning effects for the K-D test. Researchers see rise in children’s sports-related concussions. Differences in postfight Hest scores and changes in scores from prefight to postfight were compared for athletes with head trauma during the fight vs those without.

The King-Devick test as a determinant of head trauma and concussion in boxers and MMA fighters

The most dangerous game: Worsening by 5 seconds or more was a distinguishing characteristic noted only among the participants with head trauma, suggesting that this threshold may be a useful cutoff for exploration in future studies as a criterion for having an athlete stop play pending medical evaluation for concussion. Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a cause of short- and long-term neurologic symptoms among athletes. Sensitivity and specificity of standardized neurocognitive testing immediately following sports concussion.

The numbers of errors were very few, with one participant making 2 errors and another one error on postfight testing. Another important aspect of evaluating a potential screening test is the correlation of scores with an established battery of tests that measure the construct under study. Risk of injury associated with body checking among youth ice hockey players.

Mil Med ; The management of sports-related concussion: Can J Neurol Sci ; Going to the max protect: The sum of the 3 test card time scores constitutes the summary score for the entire test, the K-D time score. Statistical analysis was conducted by Dr.


Evaluation of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation for use in combat operations more than 12 hours after injury. We investigated the K-D test as a potential rapid sideline screening for concussion in a cohort of boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. The sum of the 3 test card time scores constituted the summary score for the entire test, the K-D time score.

MaddaMD, D. J Neurotrauma ; The K-D test represents a strong candidate rapid sideline screening test for concussion, and has particular relevance to contact sports including football, soccer, hockey, MMA, and boxing. Neurometabolic changes in the acute phase after sports concussions correlate with symptom severity. Maguire serves on the editorial boards of OphthalmologyCorneaand Current Opinion in Ophthalmology ; and receives research support from Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc.

While the manifestations of postconcussion syndrome are best captured by extensive testing batteries such as ImPACT, 37 and may be influenced by intellectual ability or depression, tests of rapid number naming such as K-D represent an objective measure.

In another study, early eye movement function at 1 week was shown to predict development of postconcussion syndrome. Among participants with head trauma, those with vs without LOC were compared similarly.

After the individual 9-minute sparring sessions, each boxer was retested once using the K-D test. Table 1 Characteristics of boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Injury that is coming to a head. Reliability for K-D measurements prefight vs postfight was also excellent among participants who did not have head trauma during their match ICC 0. Among boxers, the MACE test was given only to those with head trauma.