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All the subbands are used by one source at a given time. An NIC provides an Ethernet station with a 6-byte physical address.

AM changes the amplitude of the carrier b. If the EA bit is 0, the address ends at the current byte; if it 1, the address continues to the next byte. Each frame carries 1 bit from each source.

This liberty may create collision. The smallest frame is 64 bytes or bits. The most common today are circuit switching and packet switching. All are in the code. In a circuit-switched network, end-to-end addressing is needed during the setup and teardown phase to create a connection for the whole data transfer phase.

The 8 byte overhead at the CS layer makes the total size which means data unit of size SONET sends frames in each second. We need to send frames.


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The standards are nearly identical. An STS multiplexer multiplexes signals from multiple electrical sources and creates the corresponding optical signal.

We then add sepa- rate DLCI into a 6-bit and a 4-bit and add extra bits. The phase of both signal elements are the same, which we assume to be 0 degrees. FSK changes the frequency of the carrier. PPP is a byte-oriented protocol used for point-to-point links.

Burst errors of size 9 are detected most of the time, but they slip by with proba- are left undetected. The core is denser than the cladding, so a light frouzan traveling through the core is reflected at the boundary between the core and the cladding if the incident angle is more than the ecn angle. With 16 bits, we can represent up to different colors. The signal is amplified by a factor The general factors are size, distances covered by forouaan networkstructure, and ownership.

Options can be used for network testing and debugging. Note that when the algorithm exits from the loop, there are six bits of the ending flag in the buffer, which need to be removed after the loop.

Here, we have a special situation. Fourier series gives the frequency domain dcm a periodic signal; Fourier analysis gives the frequency domain of a nonperiodic signal.

A switch assigns a DCLI to each virtual connection in an interface. Although no frame is damaged or lost, the sender sends each frame twice. This means that two different input or output ports may use the same virtual circuit number.


The main difference between Iridium and Globalstar is the relaying mechanism. A repeater regenerates the original signal; the signal can continue to travel and the LAN length is thus extended. We show the dataword, the codeword, the corrupted codeword, and the interpreta- tion of the receiver for each case: Other layers do flrouzan need these bytes.

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Any time a switch in this type of network receives a packet, it consults its table for routing information. We then use Figure 4.

In the worst case, we send the a full window of size 7 and then wait for the We ignore the overhead due to the header and trailer. In a controlled access dcnn, either a central authority in polling or foouzan stations in reservation and token passing control the access.

In multistage switching, blocking refers to times when one input cannot be con- nected to an output because there is no path available between them—all the possi- ble intermediate switches are occupied.