Crossopteryx is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family. The genus contains only one species, viz. Crossopteryx febrifuga, which is found . Crossopteryx febrifuga. Rubiaceae. (G. Don.) Benth. Crossopteryx febrifuga (Paul Latham). Crossopteryx febrifuga flower and fruit (Paul. Latham). Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of.

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Five hundred grams of the coarse powder was cold macerated with 2. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Pharmacological screening and toxicology. In addition the observed gastro-protective effect of the extract may be related to effects of several classes of active secondary compounds present in this medicinal plant.

These rats were also observed for signs of toxicity and mortality for the first critical 4h and thereafter daily for 7 days. However in African countries including Nigeria, indigenous herbal medicines are widely used for the management of painful inflammatory disorders, despite an apparent crpssopteryx of scientific evidence for their quality, safety and efficacy Fennell et al.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDswhich act as non-selective cyclooxygenase COX inhibitors, are commonly used to treat pain and inflammation despite the risk of major upper gastrointestinal complications Venkova et al.

Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines One hour after ethanol administration, the rats were sacrificed under diethyl ether anaesthesia. The primary cause of the pathogenic effects of NSAIDs in the stomach is crossopterhx deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins required to maintain the mucosal barrier to luminal acid.

Effect of the extract on piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration Piroxicam produced focal haemorrhagic gastric lesions and inflammation of the stomach mucosa in the rats.

Stimulation of rat gastric mucosal leukotriene C4 formation by ethanol and effect of gastric protective drugs. Yesilada E, Takaishi Y. The oral median lethal dose LD 50 of the methanolic extract was determined in rats orally using Lorke’s method with modifications.

The method described by Salawu et al. The results obtained showed that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossoptery febrifuga possesses significant antiulcer effect against ethanol- induced gastrointestinal ulceration in rats. The efficacy cfossopteryx the gastro-histoprotective effects of methanolic extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga against the piroxicam – induced gastric mucosa atrophy and ethanol-induced focal infiltration of inflammatory cells into mucosa areas, were comparable to that of misoprostol and cimetidine respectively.


Table 2 Effect of the Crossopteryx febrifuga extract on piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration.

Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Crossopteryx febrifuga

The products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway may also fehrifuga a key role in the development of ulcer induced by irritant agents such as ethanol Lange et al. The resultant mixture was filtered using Whatman filter paper No.

Several plants containing high amounts of saponins have been shown to possess antiulcer activity in several experimental bioassays Yamahara et al, crossoptertx Yesilada and Takaish, ; Morikawa et al, probably acting as an activator of mucus membrane protective factors Saito et al. The lesions observed were assessed for the following; mucosal atrophy, presence of inflammatory cells in the wall, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. One of such therapeutically useful medicinal plant is Crossopteryx febrifuga Benth, Family Rubiaceaea twisted tree with conspicuous tubular flowers, which is widely distributed throughout the Savannah region of Central, East and West Africa.

The authors are grateful to the management of National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development for provision of enabling environment and facilities used for the study.

In conclusion this study illustrated the safety of Crossopteryx febrifuga in gastrointestinal tract when used as an antiinflammatory analgesic agent that could be developed for management of painful inflammatory disorders.

Crossopteryx febrifuga

The present study was therefore designed to study its effect on the gastrointestinal tract when used for management of chronic pain related disorders. This observed gastroprotective effect of the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga may have been produced by enhancing gastric mucosal defensive factors through increased gastric blood flow, increased mucus and bicarbonate secretion.

Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.

Open in a separate window. Finally, the flavonoids are the major secondary metabolites class with several descriptions of antiulcer, antioxidant and gastroprotective properties, which involves nitric oxide participation Matsuda et al. Histologic and microcirculatory changes in alcohol-induced gastric lesions in the rats: Abstract Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzel.


Piroxicam caused extensive mucosal atrophy, infiltration by eosinophils and lymphoplasma cells of the wall. Oleanolic acid promotes healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric lesions in rats. Discussion The results obtained from the study showed that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possess anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition increases gastric tone and delays gastric emptying in rats.

Rubiaceae are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders.

West African Plants

Oxygen free radical and lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions induced by indomethacin in rats. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The data obtained in the test for acute toxicity suggest that the extract is moderately toxic Salawu et al. Preparations of the tree is used traditionally for symptomatic relief of dry cough and for treatment of septic wounds, respiratory infections, fever, dysentery and pain.

Effect of the Crossopteryx febrifuga extract on piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration. Relation to gastric hypermotility. Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzel.

Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract git. The choice of models used for antiulcer evaluation is very appropriate because the protocols undertaken in the rats are those mostly used for the evaluation of antiulcer agents and are reproducible. The results obtained from the study showed that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possess anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats.

Structural requirements of flavonoids for nitric oxide production inhibitory activity and mechanism of action. In the stomach, prostaglandins is critical crosslpteryx the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity, but the mechanism involved in the cytoprotective action febeifuga prostaglandins is still incompletely understood.

Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. J Med Crossolteryx Res.