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For this purpose there must be a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable. This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics.
Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. The surface then needs to be solvent cleaned to remove any greases f165-02 oils. Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being tested.
It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack.
With this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action. Active view current version of standard. Non-destructive examination NDE is used to detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing. One of the most critical aspects of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities. The reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on the surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels.
Dye Penetrant Testing
This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent. Also, there are no universal acceptance criteria on the maximum allowable size of an indication. In most cases, the discontinuities are visible to the naked eye without liquid penetrant testing.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
MET-L-CHEK ROT ( ml). Penetrant testing. Non-destructive testing. Quality System
Energy-Tech Magazine Contact us. Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J. Another technique involves the use of an ultraviolet light to view the surface discontinuities. A suitable waiting time allows the penetrant to enter the surface discontinuities, and then excess penetrant can be removed.
The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer. Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots. E15-02 penetrant that is trapped in asmt discontinuities will glow when viewed under a black light. This can take minutes after the developer is applied.
Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part. A scratch or a pore can easily be misinterpreted as a crack or flaw, and this can lead to unnecessary and costly repairs. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps:. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps: The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily a crack or a flaw.
A common recommendation is to use solvent and not potable water when cleaning stainless steel parts, such as turbine rotors, that will be highly stressed when in service. Then the surface must be allowed to dry.
An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1. After application of the developer, the visual inspection aztm done with a black light. To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication. Pre-clean the surfaces to be inspected.
As soon as the material is dry, the developer is applied. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part e156-02 the standard. The liquid penetrant examination just makes the discontinuities easier to see.
This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. They are nondestructive testing methods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. The purpose of this article is to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods.
Care must be taken not to overly clean and remove the penetrant from the discontinuities. The developer brings the penetrating oil out of the discontinuities by a blotting action.
It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. This might involve sandblasting, ashm brushing, etc. Some of the most popular NDE methods include: These inspections can increase the reliability of the part by providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure.
SI units are provided for information only.