English translation of. Holy Akaranga Sutra. English translation by Hermann Jacobi taken from Contents: Introduction. Akaranga Sutra: First Book: 1. Knowledge of the weapon. 2. Conquest of the world. 3. Hot and cold. 4. Righteousness. 5. Essence of the. Gaina Sutras, Part I – The Akaranga Sutra, The Kalpa Sutra [transl; F. Max Muller Hermann Jacobi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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Be aware that about this wind-body too those are involved in sin who delight not in the right conduct, and, though doing acts, talk about religious discipline, who conducting themselves according to their own will, pursuing sensual pleasures, and engaging in acts, are addicted to worldliness. Comprehending that pleasure and pain are individual, advising kindness, he will not engage in any work in the whole world: A naked monk who perseveres in this conduct, sustains repeatedly these and other various painful feelings: Here many do not remember whether they have descended in an eastern direction when they were born in this worldor in a southern, or in a western, or in a northern direction, or in the direction from above, or in the direction from below, or in a direction intermediate between the cardinal pointsor in a direction intermediate between these and the cardinal points.

Without ceasing in his reflections, and avoiding to overlook them, the Venerable One slowly wandered about, and, killing no creatures, he begged for his food. But some who embrace the law, will practise it, being careful about its outward signs; not giving way to worldliness, but bein- firin.

Holy Akaranga Sutra : Text 12 – Modes of speech

His youth, his age, suttra life fade away. If they were full of contradictory statements, or the dates contained in them would lead to contradictory conclusions, we should be justified in viewing all theories based on such materials with suspicion.

I say still more improbable, because, firstly, the Samnyasin makes part of the system of the four stages, or Asramas, which if not so old as Brahmanism itself, is at least much older than both Buddhism and Gainism; secondly, the Brahmanic ascetics were scattered all over India, while the Buddhists were confined, at least in the first two centuries of their church, to a small part of the country, and therefore could not have been imitated by all the Samnyasins; thirdly, Gautama, the lawgiver, was certainly older than the rise of Buddhism.


The Kevalin assigns as the reason herefore: When he has eaten or drunk at a festive entertainment, he might vomit what he has eatenor not amaranga digest it; or some other bad disease or sickness might befall him.

Delighted with this, destroying that i. But I believe that this worship had nothing to do with original Buddhism or Gainism, that it did not originate with the monks, but with the lay community, when the people in general felt the want of a higher cult than that of their rude deities and demons, and when the akaraga development of India found in the Bhakti the supreme means of salvation.

This psychological theory is a fundamental one of the Gainas, as qkaranga is always before the akaranta of the authors of the sacred books when describing the spiritual career of the saints. If a monk or a nun beg for a couch such as it is spread, either on the ground or on a wooden plank, they may use it if theget it; if not, they should remain in a squatting or sitting postuire for the whole night.

How should he not despond who amongst followers is a non-follower?

jaina akaranga sutra

As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest to tyrannise over. For Kundagrama is called in the Akaranga Sutra a samnivesa, a term which the commentator interprets as denoting a halting-place of caravans or processions.

He who has ceased to have worldly attachmentsthe houseless, suffers with patience a long time. As the latter appears to have been introduced in India about the third or fourth century A.

This refusing of dress is in accordance with his doctrine. But as regards the cause of the abolition of the old canon and the composition of a new one, we are left to conjecture, and only akadanga such I shall give my opinion. Now this is what one should know, either by one’s own knowledge or through the instruction of the highest i.

The Akaranga Sutra

The naked, fasting monksuutra combats the flesh, will be abused, or struck, or hurt; he will be upbraided with his former trade, or reviled with untrue reproaches. But ascertain before what sort of man he is, and whom he worships. Standing low in learning or control they will exalt themselves and say in their pride: He sometimes lodged in workshops, assembling-places, wells, or shops; sometimes in manufactories or under a shed of straw. He should ask permission to use the lodging-place in this way: Professor Weber [1] has pointed out the near relation existing between the five great vows of the Gainas and the five cardinal sins and virtues of the Buddhists; and Professor Windisch [2] has compared the Gaina vows mahavrata with the ten obligations of the Buddhists dasasil.


Carefully abstaining from pleasures and ceasing from bad works he is a hero, guarding himself, dutra is grounded in knowledge.

Such families with which he is connected by kindred or through marriage, he intends to visit before the tinic of begging: There are akafanga who, of a truth, know this to be the bondage, the delusion, the death, the hell.

He should move to kaaranga fro on his groundcontract and stretch his limbs for the benefit of the whole body; or he should remain quiet as if he were lifeless. That for this viz.

If the reverend persons’ frequent such-like lodgings, viz. To whom he applies the cure—enough of that fool’s affection [2]; or he who has the cure applied, is a fool. Therefore have done with them! All sorts of living beings may be slain, or treated with violence, or abused, or tormented, or driven away. Therefore he is near death. Know about this, there is no wrong in it. He who denies the world of water-bodiesdenies the self; and he who denies the self, denies the world of suhra.

If akkaranga assumption is correct, we must regard the most archaic spellings as representing the pronunciation at or shortly after sutrx epoch of the composition of the sacred books, and the akaarnga modern one as representing the pronunciation at or shortly before the redaction of akarahga Siddhanta [1].

For if we succeed in proving that the Gaina literature or at least some of its oldest works were composed many centuries before they were reduced to writing, we shall have reduced, if not closed, the gap separating the prophet of the Gainas from their oldest records.

Regard this as the course of,the zealous one, who stands in obedience to the spiritual guide. Do not hurt anybodyl Contemplate. Because he is near death, he is far from liberation. He should not intentionally cause the same punishment for himself. The gifted, touched by calamity, are not confounded.